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Carl Friedrich Gauss consideraba a la  matemática como reina de las ciencias, pero la pregunta que se hacen muchos es si se debe seguir  considerando así en la actualidad, pues al parecer el avance  tecnológico atribuye el  desarrollo de las ciencias a la herramienta  base de este tiempo: La computadora con gran potencia de cálculo. Lo que muchas personas no cercanas a la ciencias no saben es que  en realidad la matemática ha ganado sorprendentes espacios hasta el punto de invadir  muchos aspectos de  nuestra vida.

Las matemáticas, como da cuenta su historia han evolucionado  interactuando con  los nuevos descubrimientos científicos, lo que trajo como consecuencia una  aceleración en la investigación que continúa hasta la actualidad.  En nuestro tiempo, las matemáticas  son una herramienta fundamental, pues se aplican en diversos campos (ciencias naturales ,ingeniería, medicina, ciencias sociales, música, control de mecanismos, etc). La aplicación de los conocimientos matemáticos en todo el mundo es indispensable para el desarrollo de nuevos descubrimientos y nuevas disciplinas. Aunque para muchos  la computadora sea la reina del desarrollo de las ciencias actuales, la realidad es que lo que le permite a la computadora hacer lo que hace son las matemáticas aplicadas, complejas teorías matemáticas de la información, de la mecánica de fluidos y gases, de la geometría computacional y muchas más. Actualmente, todas las ciencias aportan problemas que son estudiados por matemáticos, al mismo tiempo que aparecen nuevos problemas dentro de las propias matemáticas.   

Es de esta manera que actualmente  la matemática aplicada sirve a otras disciplinas a través  de  los modelos que se simulan en computadoras con el fin de predecir resultados sin la construcción efectiva del objeto. Por ejemplo, uno de los grandes usos de la  matemática aplicada está involucrado con la matemática computacional en la medicina; en los modernos aparatos de diagnóstico, en el diseño de cirugía ocular, tomografía computacional, resonancia magnética, entre otros, los cuales se convierten en  valiosos artefactos matemáticos con el fin de reconstruir una imagen conociendo la atenuación y el ángulo de los rayos.   También se puede mencionar su gran utilidad en campos de la ingeniería,  para estudiar la aerodinámica del automóvil, temperatura en un motor, señales y telecomunicaciones (análisis y optimización del tráfico de las redes de comunicación e Internet), optimización y control, sistemas dinámicos, métodos numéricos, mecánica celeste y astronomía, mecánica cuántica, teoría de códigos y criptografía entre otros. Es así que la Matemática aplicada juega un papel importante no sólo en los mencionados campos sino también en la reactivación industrial, pues las industrias aun pequeñas, comienzan a necesitar la optimización de modelos. 

En conclusión, es obvio que la matemática en la actualidad no  está relegada por la tecnología, sino que es cada vez  más fuerte y vivaz porque es una manera para entender el mundo y es una pieza fundamental en el desarrollo y aplicación de la tecnología moderna.

Héctor A. Granada D.
Estudiante de Doctorado
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales


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